interview
interview

本文最终更新日:2010/11/03 同时发布于译言网,猛击这里访问。

找工作是个技术活,光靠实力不善交流不行,能说会道却缺乏内容也不行。网上有各种面试技巧,让我们来看看如何在面试中合理、有效地问题,获得主动权。

Anyone who’s ever been on a job interview knows the pause:  The moment when the interviewer’s q&as come to a stop, she looks you in the eyes and says: “And do you have any questions for me?”

每个参加过职业面试时都经历过这样的暂停:在面试官的问答结束后停留少许,她看着你的眼睛并说:“你是否有问题想要问我呢?”

Preparing for that crossroads in the interview is crucial, say recruiters and hiring managers. It’s the time to turn the table. And you don’t want to be caught off-guard with crickets in your head. You’ll appear indifferent, or worse, clueless. Alternately, if you’re buzzing with questions and give the interviewer what feels like the third-degree, it will immediately signal that you are unfocused or too aggressive.

招聘人员以及雇员经理们认为,为面试中这样一个紧要的环境提前作准备是至关重要的。这是一个角色互换的过程, 你绝不会想毫无准备地被各种胡思乱想把面试搞砸。你会显得表现平平,或者更糟糕地是作出些傻事来。另外,如果你频繁地提问,则会给面试官一种像拷问的感觉,这会立刻给面试官一个信号——你心不在焉或者过于激进。

12 Worst Questions To Ask In Your Job Interview

[延伸阅读]12个在面试中提出的最糟的问题。

“This is an opportunity to look like a leader and show that you are engaged in the interview,” says Cynthia Shapiro, a career strategist based in Woodland Hills, Cal., and author of What Does Somebody Have To Do To Get A Job Around Here?

“如果你抓住了主动权,那就会给人留下一种你很在乎这场面试的映像。”,Cynthia Shapiro说道,她是一名Woodland Hills, Cal.的职业策略师,也是《找工作必须做的几件事》的作者。

“The best questions are really all about them and not about you,” says Louise Garver, an executive coach for the past 23 years from Broad Brook, Conn., and founder of Career Directions, LLC. “They have one thing at their core: How can I contribute value to the team and the company.”

“最好的问题其实都应该关于他们(指招聘单位)而不是你,”Louise Garver说,她在过去的23年中担任Broad Brook, Conn.的首席教练,也是Career Directions, LLC的创始人。“这些问题有一个核心:我怎么为团队以及公司创造价值。”

Here, the five most important questions to ask at a job interview–plus a debatable no-no–so that you’ll make the right impression and get the job offer.

这里,有5个在面试中最重要的问题——加上1个仍有争议不该提的——它们会让你给用人单位留下正确的映像并给你这个机会。

1、您如何看待一个理想的应聘者?

What this question does is enable the hiring supervisor to imagine you actually in the job as he or she is describing the position, says Shapiro. Technically, it is a form of transference. But practically it’s a way to role-play. “I’m so glad you said you need an Excel wiz. In my last position I…” Grab this as an opportunity to describe yourself doing the very things the interviewer outlined by using past experiences and wins.

Shapiro说这个问题让雇员管理人员将你想像为实际工作中来描述这个职位。从技术角度看,这算一种移情作用。然而实际上是一种角色扮演。“我很高兴听到你说需要一个Excel高手,在我前一份工作中我……” 抓住其中的机会表述你自己,利用过去的工作经验将自己描绘成一个符合面试官列出的要求并出奇制胜。

Continuing this line of questioning–”What are the top three qualities you’re looking for?”–will reveal key information. Take mental or actual notes (it’s OK to have pen and paper handy–it’ll keep your hands busy) in order to shape your responses accordingly for future interviews or later in the conversation.

此类问题还有“您寻找的人中有哪3个最重要的要求?”这会揭露出关键的信息。用脑子或笔记下(拿着笔与纸应该没问题——这会让你的手不闲着),以便于让你的反应在接下来的谈话或以后的面试中更有针对性。

2、您认为这个职位的发展将对您有什么帮助?

At face value, this question has nothing to do with the job candidate herself–and the interviewer will certainly appreciate that. You’ve likely already listed all your past job and educational experiences. Instead of more me-me-me talk, it translates to I’m-all-about-you. “What you’re saying to your potential employer without saying it is, ‘I’ll make your life easier,’” says Shapiro. “That alone will put you at the top of the list.”

从表面上来看,这个问题和应聘者本身毫无关系面试官自然也会意识到。你可能已经罗列了过去的工作以及教育经理。相比更多有关自己的话题,这个问题可以被看作是“我很在乎你的看法”。“那就好似在无言之中与这位和潜在的雇主表明了,‘我会使你的生活更容易’的含义,”Shapiro说。“只凭这个就会使你脱颖而出。”

3、这个职位对公司的长期计划会起到怎样的作用?

This query will open the door to discussions about the position and overall business strategy. It is perfectly appropriate at this point to ask about the person who is leaving (left or promoted?) or why the position was created, says Garver. You will also want to ask about the specific challenges and goals of the job, and the company’s vision for it in the next six months, year and five years.

这个问题会引出关于职位以及业务全局战略的讨论。Garver提到,有哪些人员即将离开(离职或升迁?)或为什么会有这样一个职位,此时这些问题再适合不过了。你同时也会想了解这份工作特定的挑战或目标,以及公司对未来6个月、1年甚至5年的看法。

If you feel uncomfortable, you can always couch your queries as permission-based statements, as in, “May I ask…,” says Garver.

Garver还说道,如果你对此感到不适,你可以采用询问允许的措词来提问,比如“请问我是否能问关于……”。

4、您如何定义这个职位中的“成功”?

The question drills down into a win looks like to the hiring supervisor and the company, says Shapiro. (Hint: many companies do not have performance evaluation systems in place, so you may catch your interviewer by surprise.)

Shapiro表示,这个问题深入到一个雇员监督和公司看起来成功的角度。(提示:许多公司没有一个员工表现评价系统,所以你可以利用这个机会让面试官吃上一惊。)

This question not only reveals the kind of boss you are applying to–is he or she hands-off or a micro-manger?–but will give you insight into the company’s procedures and culture. “You need to put on your Sherlock Holmes hat during a job interview and be a silent observer,” continues Shapiro. “That is the only way you can determine what kind of a boss your interviewer will be and the kind of company you may be working for.”

这个问题不仅能揭示老板算属于那种类型?——是放手一试的还是,微观管理型的——还能让你对公司的业务流程以及文化有一个大概的了解。“你在面试中需要带着一双敏锐的慧眼以及做好一个安静的观察者”,Shapiro继续说道,“那才是你能搞清面试官是怎样一种人以及即将供职的公司是什么样子的唯一出路。”

5、接下来我能为您做什么?

You want to know how you can grease the process in your favor. What you are saying, though, is “How can I help you.” And the more you find out about who or what group will be making the decision and their timeline, the more influence you have in terms of making the right contacts and sending follow-up information. “What employers are looking for are people who really want to work in the organization and are enthusiastic about affecting the outcome of the interview,” says Garver.

你会想知道怎样才能给面试的效果添砖加瓦。虽然口头上说的是“我能为您做些什么”,但你发现越是某些人或小组经常作出决定或定制时间表,越是应该对他们作出正确的交流以及后续的信息才能获得更大的影响力。Garver说,“雇主们真正希望找的就是那些真正愿意在组织中工作以及更加看中面试中的效果。”

薪水待遇如何?

Of course you want to know. But this matter of keen interest, along with other forms of compensation and benefits such as health insurance, child care, vacation, 401(k) and tuition reimbursement, is of some debate.

你当然想知道这个问题的答案。但是这类包括其他各种形式的补偿金,如健康保险、保育、假期、401K计划(一种美国养老保险)、以及其他费用报销,都算是一种讨价还价。

“This is my career, this is my life, I’d better bring up money,” says Debra Benton of Benton Management Resources of Ft. Collin, Col., a professional speaker and executive coach with 30 years experience working with such companies as Verizon, Campbell’s Soup and the USDA. “One subject you want bring up is money: ‘Money is not my main motivation in this job but what is the range?’ That shows my character. It takes courage and confidence to ask those questions.”

“这是我的职业,这是我的生活,我自然要提到钱的问题”,Benton Management Resources of Ft. Collin, Col., 的Debra Benton说道,他是一名有着30年经验的职业讲师以及首席教练,曾供职于Verizon,、Campbell’s Soup和USDA。“一个经常被提及的问题就是钱:‘钱并非这份工作中对我最大的动机,但大约有多少呢?’那问题显现了一个人的个性。它很容易让人问出这个问题。”

But many other experts advise a don’t-ask-don’t tell policy prior to a job offer in writing. “Never ask about salary and benefits,” says Garver. “Don’t ask any questions related to your needs.”

但许多专家都撰文建议在面试中的不问不提的策略如,“永远不要谈及薪水以及报酬”,Garver说:“不要提及任何与你要求有关的问题。”

Why? You don’t have much negotiating power until they decide they want you on board. “Bring salary up too early and they’ll think that’s all you care about,” says Shapiro. So what should you do if THEY bring up salary before the offer? Simply say it would be something you’d consider. “Once they make the offer, it means they want you. Then negotiate. It shows that you’re serious.”

为什么呢?因为在他们决定你能够获得这份工作以前并没有多少能够谈判的资本。“太早拿出薪水的问题会让他们认为你只关心这个”,Shapiro表示。那么如果“他们”在确定你能够获得这份工作前就谈到薪水问题该怎么办呢?只要简单地表示你有考虑过就可以。“一旦他们给了你这份工作,就表示他们需要你。这时才去商谈,这让你看起来很严肃。”